Tag Archives: perennials

September Foraging

I’ve been staying with a friend in a very sandy area of the country, unlike my own heavy clay soil, and it’s been fascinating to see the different gardening crops and routines.

2.7kg of crab apples on the go
2.7kg of crab apples on the go

But most of all, we’ve been foraging: crab apples, rosehips and hawthorn, all of which are nationwide, whatever the soil is. 2.7 kilos of crab apples, 2kg of rosehips and another kilo of haws, all from lovely locations. The rosehips were gathered a mile from any road at all, deep in a local nature reserve full of sand dunes and protected toads (we saw a baby, less than a centimetre long).

Wild rosehips on the Lancashire sand dunes
Wild rosehips on the Lancashire sand dunes

We followed two recipes, both from the Preserves book from Hugh FW’s River Cottage series, the hedgerow jelly and the rosehip syrup. I can’t see it on Amazon at the moment, but this one is similar (and there are second hand copies for pennies via that link:

There were many lessons …

Firstly, get your kitchen organised, and have everything ready to process your haul. My own kitchen is more or less up to speed with this – though not as good as British Red’s setup shown on his blog English Country Life – but my friend is looking after an elderly lady, so while I was there, the kitchen was filled with the paraphenalia for three of us, all with differing nutritional and dietary needs. In a grid-down situation, of course, we’d have to focus more, and concentrate more.

Secondly, using resources as local to you as possible, for freshness, for convenience, for time: the haws were only five minutes walk away, but the rosehips and crab apples were 15 minutes drive away. So more research beforehand is needed to make it work without overwhelming your days.

Thirdly, walking your neighbourhood at different times of year, is helpful in so many ways. It will show you what crops you can experiment with, and you can learn how long a crop is available for. We scouted the rosehips in the second week of September, but didn’t have time to pick them till the following week, and more than half of them were nibbled by wasps or rotten by then.

Next, an outside space to sort what you’ve gathered is pretty important, especially if you’re cooking in your domestic kitchen, not a dedicated space in an outbuilding or shed of some sort. I’m not sure my friend quite agrees with me on this one, but I don’t want to bring extra pests into the home, I want the leaf detritus and rotten berries onto the compost heap as soon as possible. Plus the sheer amount of space needed when you also have to sterilise your jars and bottles and so on, just makes it impractical to do everything from the initial processes right through to the bottling in the same room that’s being used for domestic life. Luckily, my friend has a little courtyard garden where we could sort through things in peace.

Getting the equipment together would be my fifth point, and I’ve said it before during earlier experiments. But you have to be willing to improvise too. In our case, we had a “died in storage” situation with the elastic of the muslin bag my friend used to filter the crab apple jelly. It had completely collapsed, and nearly slid off its tripod, taking the crab apple pulp with it. So the muslin bag was held on with its loops and with wire tied around it, which you can see in the photos. It was great, and it worked.

Crab apples draining through
Crab apples draining through

Lastly, labels. Last, but important. Labels are good – if you were doing this sort of preserving even a couple of times a week, you couldn’t possibly remember what’s what. Labels may look chintzy in some shops, but they’re a real essential. Showing the month and year you made your produce is also a good idea.

Labels aren’t last, sorry. There’s also the crucial taste test! The rose hip syrup wasn’t good, to be honest – much, much too sugary. And as with any wild species, the taste varies from plant to plant. In this case, the taste of the actual rosehips was very mild, and overwhelmed by the sugar. The spicy crab apple jelly, which also has the haws in it, is still maturing.  I’m hopeful.

Spicy crab apple jelly
Spicy crab apple jelly

If there was an ongoing crisis of some sort, there are better things to do with sugar than to make a sugary drink. Still, since we’d made it, I used it on my porridge instead of honey – it was certainly sweet enough, and there are nutrients and micronutrients in rosehips. Waste not, want not.

Processing the harvest, even in February

Yep, you read that right. Harvest from the windowsills, harvest from a culture kindly shared by an online friend, and harvest from the supermarket – sorry about that last one, I’ve got no magic formula for conjuring food from the garden at this time of year, though perennials such as lemon balm, rhubarb, sorrel, garlic and salad burnet are all starting to grow.

This is a bit of a different from my usual post, but it underlies a great deal of preparedness in general. It’s about using what you’ve got, whether that’s cheap fresh food from the supermarket or first aid supplies from plants you’re growing yourself, or swapping cultures online. Thinking a bit outside the box to improvise, to keep alive the old skills, to become more self reliant. That means relying less on big business, saving money and giving yourself a bit of concrete insurance to ensure that you can cope with whatever comes your way in these uncertain times.

First aid supplies and food stocks are the two areas I’m most interested in. So last week, I was repotting my aloe vera plants, and three became five. I hadn’t repotted them for about 3 years, and I meant to just get some fresh soil in there and repot them in the same plantpots, but it wasn’t possible – the “pups”, the new plants, were too big, and some had to be separated out, so that’s what I did. I was really badly organised about it, I hadn’t got enough plantpots ready and my equipment was stretched out over almost the whole of the kitchen and the patio outside, as well as needing to find new sites for the newly potted pups. Not good.

But I ended up with five well-nourished plants, so that’s good, for sure. Aloe vera are incredibly easy to grow as a houseplant in the UK – ordinary potting compost, a windowsill, water once a week, and Bob’s your proverbial uncle. In fact, they’re quite hard to kill. Mine have suffered from not being repotted earlier, it’s true, but they’re still alive, and now they’re flourishing again.

How little soil they had
How little soil the plants had before repotting

They have quite a few uses – not just snipping a bit of leaf for a burn, which seems the only widely known use. Instead, I had a look at WebMD, a pretty orthodox site as these things go, and I was pleasantly surprised at what I found there. It can be used (every so often) for constipation, for many skin conditions (from psoriasis to male genital herpes) and I was shocked to find there are also studies supporting its use for diabetics, in lowering their blood sugar, and possibly in lowering cholesterol too. It is already used in conjunction with radiotherapy and is considered helpful for “radiation induced skin injuries”. That’s quite something.

Three of the new plants
Three of the happy new plants

It has to be processed carefully, however, and it can’t be used constantly, so I’ll be doing another post on the actual useage – I need to let my new plants settle in and expand their root system, in any case.

 

The supermarket harvesting was onions at 60p per kilo, not particularly cheap, but cheap enough, and I wanted to do another experiment with dehydrating. A lot of people who identify as ‘preppers’ already dehydrate, of course, and it became almost mainstream a few years ago, when Alys Fowler of Gardener’s World devoted most of one of her own TV programmes to it. But it’s new to me. I need dehydration as a form of preserving food – I don’t like using sugar for that, and vinegar is bad in any quantity for people with arthritis. I don’t quite trust my freezer any more, it doesn’t seem to store frozen veg too well, so dehydrating it is. Because there’s no magical ingredient to it, its quite hard to take it on board, so I’m doing gradual experiments – grapes and sweet peppers a few weeks ago, and onions today, a kilo of them.

Omigod! Never process that amount of onions without wearing swimming goggles, it qualifies as a chemical attack. Or a sinus treatment, I haven’t quite decided.

Saving seed
Saving the sweet pepper seed for later sprouting
Dehydrating onions
Dehydrated onions
Dried onions and sweet peppers
Dried onions and sweet peppers

One lesson I did take on board from the work on the aloes was to be much better prepared from the outset. So the base of the dehydrator was sitting right by the out-of-the-way electric socket, where it could hum away to itself for the next ten hours. The trays were stacked just behind me, on the way to the pre-positioned base. And I was stationed at my work area – a kilo of onions in front of me, a small chopping area to take the onion skins, a used pot to take the skins ready for the compost bin, and a knife and full-sized chopping board to slice the onions ready for the dehydrator shelves.

The jars I used to store the dried onions are Kilner jars, meant for home canning in the American sense; the bodies were run through the dishwasher and left to cool and dry, and the lids were just washed and dried – in future years, maybe I could make my own antimicrobial fluid by harvesting my aloe vera plants! But there are many experiments to come before I’m ready to do that. Interesting, though.

The final part of all this harvesting was an experiment with the kefir culture another prepper sent me: I’m sure mumsnet users share their kefir and scoby cultures around too, and once I’m comfortable with the process, I’m willing to pay it forward as well – if anyboy would like kefir culture, just get in touch with me via the comments.

I used a very pretty jar I had lying around, and seconded an old peanut butter lid to lay across the top, then put the whole construction in my airing cupboard. The hot water wasn’ t on, so it didn’t overheat.

Kefir jar sitting in the airing cupboard
Kefir jar in the airing cupboard

It’s very, very simple to harvest – after 48 hours, I strained the now-lumpy milk into a jug. The strainings went into a new jar with more milk. The kefir-ed milk was put into the fridge – I’ll use it over the next few days. I don’t want to drink this much milk regularly, even though apparently the fermentation uses up the lactose, so I’m going to be experimenting with water kefir, which comes up prominently on a web search.

Looking after the culture is a little bit more complicated than this – making sure you have clean jars and lids, timing the fermentation to fit in with your own life, and how much product you want – that just takes time to find the right way forward for each person.

Each experiment worked well, and the dehydrating in particular means I’m not reliant on continued electricity to power the freezer, to keep my food stocks good to eat. Dehydrated food stores compactly, too – as anyone who’s soaked beans overnight knows, dried food has much less volume and weight than the original food. The dehydrator can’t work without electricity, of course, but that’s my next personal project, and a solar briefcase is already sitting in my stores, ready for the battery of my choice. A haybox is half made, to cook dehydrated food – an electric slow cooker can be used in the meantime. The aloes and the kefit mean that I’m looking after the health of me and my family.

One project leads on to another, and the net result is more stocks, more skills, and more preparedness all round. I like it.

Front garden borders for preppers

So, on to the second part of this marathon about using your front garden to prep, while not shrieking from the garden gate that you’re a prepper.

You can buy from this sort of market stall, which helps you build local links too.  I took this photo with permission, and the stallholder decided to duck out, she was very camera shy.  But it’s a beautiful stall, with lots of useful plants:

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Local market stall – you too can buy here!

Additional use of hardstanding

I can’t believe I forgot about this, but one excellent use of space at the front of the house is a water butt! From watering the plants to the first sluicing off of big cleaning jobs that you’re doing outside, to emergency water to flush the toilet if you’ve suddenly got no water supply for some reason. A water butt is a great prep!

Hedging

Even if you have got a front garden, you may not have a hedge, but if you do, it can certainly be adapted to prepping use.

It can provide privacy, which is one of the main purposes of a hedge – when the houses where you live are quite close together, for example, a hedge will provide some privacy between you and your neighbour, and you can grow a hedge to front the pavement as well, to give you even more privacy.

A living hedge can also be a windbreak – generally much more effective than a solid wall, as the wind is slowed, not diverted, by plants.

What prepping plants are good for hedging, particularly in the front garden? I’d bet on roses, hawthorn, willows and mahonia – between them, they have flowers, berries, headache cures, leafy greens and a renewable fuel supply. Sort out which is which first, though … next year, I’ll be using my new dehydrator properly, and I’ll be posting specifically about each plant as I crop and forage. There may be useful hedging/prepping plants that are specific to your region: in the south of the UK, for instance, its perfectly possible to grow vines. Sometimes you might harvest some fruit (though I’d bet it would be scavenged before you picked it in really bad times!) but remember that the leaves can be used as wraps as well.

Borders

Well, the possibilities are endless. Lots of plants that appear regularly in borders all over the country are brilliant at providing some edible cropping: lavender, rosemary, nasturtiums, sage, sorrel, chives, sunflowers, fennel, alchemilla, marigolds, poppies and nigella, just for starters. Dependent on soil type, of course. I use to grow huge fennel plants in my chalky soil – they won’t grow at all in the clay soil I now have.

I’ve bought rooted chives at a market stall and split them into four, as below – a really easy way to increase your crops at very low cost.

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Splitting a pot of chives

Plenty of others can go in without much comment: salad burnet, rocket, wild garlic, lemon balm, some of the perennial onions, even a container of bay.

There are root crops that can be popped here and there in the borders too: radish, beetroot and onions in particular, or the new American crops coming in of yacon and oca.

Growing any plants in the rows that are normally found in back gardens or allotments is going to look out of place, but dotting them here and there should be fine.

Remember to include plants that bees like in the border planting, as well as in the lawn. They like plenty of the cropping plants already mentioned, of course, but there’s no harm in having more. Cotoneaster plants are very, very popular with bees, and insects in general.

You could also grow plants in the borders that are useful for your gardening as a whole: you could grow your own bamboo canes, for instance, if you get a clumping bamboo set up. You could grow your own comfrey, and make your own liquid fertiliser. The plant world is full of opportunities like this.

The other category of plants to include is the ones you actually like! I like scabious (bees do, as well) and Californian poppy (which apparently has sedative uses).

A border like this isn’t going to shout out anything particularly noticeable to your neighbours or to opportunist thieves, but it will provide you with pleasure, with food and with other resources too.

 

Overview of Growing Houseplants as a Prepper

Introduction
The first prep that makes sense when you become a prepper is to stock up on food, by buying extra of some of your normal shopping. More baked beans, more salmon, more rice, more vegetable oil, more sugar, more tinned potatoes (I have an addiction to those, I confess). All sorts of things. More of that another day.

Then people realise they need water – water’s cheap, but its heavy, really heavy, so thats often a question of some 5 litre bottles and a few bottles of purification tablets, maybe a water butt. More of that another day too.

The question of growing your own comes up then: for people with a garden, the obvious answer is to get out there, and start digging and planting. Much, much more of that another day, another week, another year, its an endless topic!

But plenty of people don’t have gardens, or aren’t physically able to garden. And people with gardens want even more space. What can we do? This post is an introduction to answering that question. All of the topics I’ve listed below will eventually have their own posts on the blog, sometimes several of them, this is just a preliminary overview.

Making growing space inside the house
I have some ideas about houseplants that might help. They’re not the complete answer, naturally, but neither is the average suburban garden, you couldn’t feed a family on the produce from a garden, nor even a single person. But little bits help, they really do, and if there’s an emergency of some kind during winter, or an Icelandic ash cloud much worse than the last one (so much so that its dangerous to go out because of the size of the jagged ash particles), growing more inside the house is really the only way to get extra produce.

So, this is about a regular prep, as well as for potential medium-term emergencies: a bad winter can see a lot of snowstorms, so that ekeing out your stores becomes something that’s really useful. It can save you money and food miles, as well.

Growing plants indoors, of course, needs work: the temperature can’t vary too wildly for some of the plants I’m describing, though some, frankly, are as tough as old boots!

Perennials
Long lasting herbs are great to grow indoors – mint, rosemary and lemon balm in particular. All are best grown out of doors, to be honest (except maybe in the very north of Scotland?), but they’re reliable producers of greenstuff with lots of micronutrients, so they’re worth having. They can all be used for teas as well as for food.

If you have a conservatory or even a large window or French doors, you could actually use the space nearby to grow ballerina trees, or some form of mini fruit bush. It would be a talking point, which you might not want, and in any case most people need their conservatories for extra living space, but its possible, thats the thing.

One perennial plant thats very easy to grow indoors is aloe vera – its so easy to grow that anyone you know who has one, will actually be eager to give you a plant – it grows like crazy. Its great for the skin, to help blisters, rough patches, healing burns. It also helps clean the air.

Some plants are always going to be house plants because they help purify the air inside a house. There are a few basic ones, pretty unremarkable: Spider plants, mother in law’s tongue and English ivy are the most common. There are plenty of others, such as weeping figs, Warneck dracaena, ferns and peace lilies are all helpful in their own way.

Annuals
Annual plants that are usually grown under cover such as chili or basil can be grown in the house too. A little bit of care is needed, especially to ensure that they get enough light, but its definitely possible.

Plenty of shop-bought vegetables can also be recycled once or twice in the kitchen, to provide extra salad greens. Carrots and spring onions, in particular – once you’ve eaten the bit you want, pack the root into a little flowerpot, or in the case of carrots into a saucer of water, and They Will Come.

Small, fast-growing salad veg can also be usefully grown indoors in ordinary times, especially in early spring when you want some salads but the weather isn’t really cooperating, and the shops are charging for the equivalent weight in gold. Radishes, lettuces, salad burnet, cress, baby greens of almost any food plant, all sorts of things.

Starting off your seedlings indoors can be a real help – even if you’re not trying to get a start on the season, your little seedlings will be safer from pests, and from bad weather like late frosts and hailstones. Nowadays, its recommended to grow them in plugs, or the insides of toilet rolls, or pouches made from newspaper – their little roots won’t be disturbed by onward planting, as they would be if they were being taken from a seed tray.

Sprouting
Sprouting is an incredibly important way of providing fresh greens for you and your family from stored food. I’d never spend money on a sprouting kit, when the home made version will do perfectly well, but I’ve found that the jar needs to be a fair bit bigger than the average jamjar, so a store of bigger jars – that used to contain mayonnaise, or beetroot, for instance – is a good idea.

Locations in the house
What about where the pots go? You want as much light as possible for nearly every plant mentioned above: if you have a secure conservatory, a lot more options open up for you. If you have a porch, many of the same options exist there (although there’ll be a lot more winter traffic in a porch, and any plants still there could well be quite stressed by that environment). Windowsills that are wide enough are helpful to put plants on, or a shelf opposite a good-sized window for a lot of plants, or hung from the ceiling. Big plant containers can go on the floor, of course, and all of these ideas will look good in the present day, in mostly ordinary times.

Intensity
However, if there’s a medium-term problem such as I described above, with ash clouds or a prolonged spell of bad weather, we need more than a pleasant amount of greenery: we need as much as we can get. So you can line your windowsills and your conservatory floor with plants, pots and saucers all touching one another; you can have a row of a dozen or so old jamjars with sprouted seeds in various stages of growth. You could even fit an extra plant shelf halfway up a window, to double the available growing space, as long as it wasn’t too noticeable from outside. Venetian blinds, for instance, hide a good deal, as long as there’s no light on inside the room.

If things need to be even more intense, you could get going with vertical indoor planting – I have quite a few spare pieces of trellis, for instance, and that could be secured to a wall and hung with plantpots that are each secured by a long twist of wire.

There are some even more complex systems to get into, if you have the room, the money and enough available time to study it and get it going – keeping it going is even better: aquaculture, aquaponics, hydroculture and hydroponics are all possibilities. For me, they’re still in the future, and I’ve still not even researched them, but if anyone has any experience of them, I’d love to hear.